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Applied Physics Letters Collection


 
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Applied Physics Letters : Coherent control of magnetization preces...

By: E. Rozkotová, P. Nemec, N. Tesarová, P. Malý, V. Novák et al

Description: We report single-color, time-resolved magneto-optical measurements in ferromagnetic semiconductor (Ga,Mn)As. We demonstrate coherent optical control of the magnetization precession by applying two successive ultrashort laser pulses. The magnetic field and temperature dependent experiments reveal the collective Mn-moment nature of the oscillatory part of the time-dependent Kerr rotation, as well as contributions to the magneto-optical signal that are not conn...

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Applied Physics Letters : Current-induced flip-flop of magnetizati...

By: Woojin Kim, Taek Dong Lee, and Kyung-Jin Lee

Description: We performed a micromagnetic investigation of current-induced magnetization switching in perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions with polarization-enhancement layers. The pinned layer with a polarization-enhancement layer can be excited and eventually reverses at a current density lower than the value theoretically expected from that without a polarization-enhancement layer. The reversal results in continuous flip-flops of magnetizations as long as the curre...

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Applied Physics Letters : Room temperature ferromagnetism in carbo...

By: Shengqiang Zhou, Qingyu Xu, Kay Potzger, Georg Talut, Rainer Grötzschel et al

Description: Unexpected ferromagnetism has been observed in carbon doped ZnO films grown by pulsed laser deposition [ H. Pan et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 127201 (2007) ]. In this letter, we introduce carbon into ZnO films by ion implantation. Room temperature ferromagnetism has been observed. Our analysis demonstrates that (1) C-doped ferromagnetic ZnO can be achieved by an alternative method, i.e., ion implantation, and (2) the chemical involvement of carbon in the ferr...

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Applied Physics Letters : Phase-specific magnetic ordering in BiFe...

By: Tim P. Comyn, Tim Stevenson, Maisoon Al-Jawad, Stuart L. Turner, Ronald I. Smith et al

Description: The multiferroic 0.7 BiFeO3–0.3 PbTiO3 has been fabricated in both sintered ceramic and powder form using conventional mixed oxide synthesis. Rietveld’s analysis of neutron powder diffraction data has shown that the sintered ceramic and powder are predominantly R3c and P4mm phases, respectively. It is shown explicitly that magnetic ordering does not occur for the P4mm phase at room temperature.

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Applied Physics Letters : Glasslike state in PbFe1/2Nb1/2O3 single...

By: Ashok Kumar, R. S. Katiyar, Carlos Rinaldi, Sergey G. Lushnikov, and Tatjana A. Shaplygina

Description: Magnetic properties of PbFe1/2Nb1/2O3 single crystal showed onset of glasslike behavior at 120 K, saturation of onset at 28 K, and freezing of glasslike state at 27.6 K. Zero field cooled (ZFC) and field cooled magnetization curves displayed sharp cusp in ZFC. Almeida and Toulouse line illustrated stability over 1000 Oe with unstable onset for low field. Magnetic hysteresis was observed below glasslike freezing temperature having steplike behavior and low co...

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Applied Physics Letters : Transmission electron microscopic study ...

By: Saurabh Tripathi, N. P. Lalla, and Dhananjai Pandey

Description: The recently reported structure of the long period modulated phase of (1−x)NaNbO3–xCaTiO3, with x = 0.16, has been revisited using transmission electron microscopic studies. It is shown that the dominant phase in the morphotropic phase boundary region of this mixed system is incommensurately modulated in the [001] direction with an approximate unit cell size of 2ap×2ap×24ap, where ap is the pseudoperovskite cell parameter.

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Applied Physics Letters : Misfit strain…misfit strain diagram of e...

By: G. Sheng, J. X. Zhang, Y. L. Li, S. Choudhury, Q. X. Jia et al

Description: The effect of anisotropic strains on the phase transitions and domains structures of BaTiO3 thin films was studied using both thermodynamic calculations and phase-field simulations. The misfit strain–misfit strain domain stability diagrams were predicted. The similarity and significant differences between the diagrams from thermodynamic calculations assuming single domains and from phase-field simulations were analyzed. Typical domain structures as a result ...

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Applied Physics Letters : Dielectric properties of Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3/...

By: Niandeng Xiong, Shuwen Jiang, Yanrong Li, Lefan Tan, and Ruguan Li

Description: The Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3(BST)/SiN bilayered thin films with a SiN layer serving as a buffer layer between the top electrode and the BST layer have been prepared onto Pt-coated c-plane sapphire substrates. The dielectric measurements show that the loss tangent has been significantly lowered. The dielectric properties of the BST/SiN bilayered thin films are strongly dependent on the SiN thickness. The BST/SiN bilayered thin films at a SiN/BST thickness ratio of 0.2 ...

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Applied Physics Letters : Energy gap modulation in V2O5 nanowires ...

By: Byung Hoon Kim, Ansoon Kim, Soon-Young Oh, Sung-Soo Bae, Yong Ju Yun et al

Description: The current-voltage characteristics at various pressures (2–10 atm) and the scanning tunneling microscopy of vanadium pentoxide nanowires (VONs) with the inert gases (He, Ne, and Ar) and diatomic molecules (H2, N2, O2) have been investigated. The gas dependent conductance (G) is consistent with the inverse energy gap obtained from the scanning tunneling spectroscopy study for the gas-adsorbed single VON. The three possible interactions for gas adsorption of ...

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Applied Physics Letters : Selective switch made from a graded nano...

By: S. M. Wang, T. Li, H. Liu, F. M. Wang, S. N. Zhu et al

Description: The magnetic plasmon (MP) modes in a metallic nanosandwich chain with a linearly increasing spacing along the chain has been investigated. Because of the graded coupling between nanosandwiches, the MP gradon with special field localization and large field amplitude can be found in the chain as well as the extended mode, which differs from the case of periodic chain. Using this property, we can precisely control the field in the chain and guide it to differen...

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Applied Physics Letters : Electrically driven single InGaN/GaN qua...

By: Anas F. Jarjour, Robert A. Taylor, Rachel A. Oliver, Menno J. Kappers, Colin J. Humphreys et al

Description: Electroluminescence from single nitride-based quantum dots is reported. Clear single quantum dot emission is observed, which persists up to ~85 K. This is achieved through the study of a quantum dot layer in the intrinsic region of a forward-biased vertical p-i-n diode. The current-voltage characteristic of the devices is examined at 4.3 K and observed to exhibit electrical bistability phenomena, which is explained in terms of charge accumulation in the InGa...

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Applied Physics Letters : Electronic structure of single-walled ca...

By: Hyung-Joon Shin, Sylvain Clair, Yousoo Kim, and Maki Kawai

Description: The electronic structures of single-walled carbon nanotubes on Ag(100) and on ultrathin insulating NaCl (100) /Ag(100) were studied using low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy. The Fermi level of the nanotubes was shifted toward the conduction band on Ag(100), while it was shifted toward the valence band on NaCl films. We explain this opposite behavior by different basic mechanisms accounting for the Fermi level shifts. On the metal surface, the wor...

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Applied Physics Letters : Scatterometry for in situ measurement of...

By: Heather J. Patrick, Thomas A. Germer, Yifu Ding, Hyun Wook Ro, Lee J. Richter et al

Description: We use optical scatterometry to extract the time evolution of the profile of nanoimprinted lines in low and high molecular mass polymer gratings during reflow at the glass transition temperature. The data are obtained continuously during the anneal using a spectroscopic ellipsometer and analyzed using a rigorous-coupled-wave model. We show excellent agreement of scatterometry results with ex situ measurements of line height by atomic force microscopy and spe...

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Applied Physics Letters : Retrieving effective parameters for quas...

By: Christoph Menzel, Carsten Rockstuhl, Thomas Paul, and Falk Lederer

Description: We introduce and compare two approaches for retrieving quantitatively the effective chirality of metamaterials at normal incidence. The retrieval employs either the reflected and transmitted amplitude of a plane wave illuminating a finite three-dimensional (3D) metamaterial or the dispersion relation of the pertinent Bloch modes in an infinite metamaterial. Both approaches are applied to characterize a 3D metamaterial consisting of a stack of metallic gammad...

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Applied Physics Letters : Growth behaviors of ultrathin ZnSe nanow...

By: Y. Cai, T. L. Wong, S. K. Chan, I. K. Sou, D. S. Su et al

Description: Ultrathin ZnSe nanowires grown by Au-catalyzed molecular-beam epitaxy show an interesting growth behavior of diameter dependence of growth rates. The smaller the nanowire diameter, the faster is its growth rate. This growth behavior is totally different from that of the nanowires with diameters greater than 60 nm and cannot be interpreted by the classical theories of the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism. For the Au-catalyzed nanowire growth at low temperatures, ...

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Applied Physics Letters : Spin precession induced by an effective ...

By: Genhua Liu, Yonghai Chen, Caihong Jia, and Zhanguo Wang

Description: We theoretically study the spatial behaviors of the spin precession in a two-dimensional electron system with spin-orbit interaction. Through analysis of interaction between the spin and the effective magnetic field in the system, we obtain the general conditions to generate a persistent spin helix and predict a persistent spin helix pattern in [001] -grown quantum wells. Particularly, we demonstrate that the phase of spin can be locked to propagate in a qu...

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Applied Physics Letters : Ferroelectric devices created by pressur...

By: Paul M. te Riele, Guus Rijnders, and Dave H. A. Blank

Description: Ferroelectric Pb (ZrxTi1−x) O3 sandwiched between SrRuO3 electrodes devices were fabricated by a single stencil deposition method. By varying the pressure, the dimension of the deposited pattern could be controlled. The dimension becomes larger in the high pressure shockwave regime, which is typical for pulsed laser deposition. The particle interactions result in an increased amount of broadening. At lower pressures, the deposited material is still in the co...

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Applied Physics Letters : An in situ electrical study on primary h...

By: Chikai Lin, Zhenzhen Yang, Tao Xu, and Yufeng Zhao

Description: Primary hydrogen spillover has been studied using a unique electrical method. We observed that at ambient temperature, when a discontinuous nanogranular Pd film is on the top of an amorphous carbon film, the electrical conductance of the carbon film decreases in pressurized hydrogen. In comparison, in the absence of this Pd layer, the conductance of the carbon film remains unchanged in pressurized hydrogen. The observed decrease in the current in the Pd/carb...

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Applied Physics Letters : Conformable coating of SiO2 on hydrother...

By: B. H. Chu, L. C. Leu, C. Y. Chang, F. Lugo, D. Norton et al

Description: Coating silicon dioxide on hydrothermally grown ZnO nanorods is demonstrated using a low temperature plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) system.Wurtzite structured ZnO nanorods were prepared by spin coating ZnO nanocrystals onto plastics or glass substrates. Then, the nanorods were subsequently grown in a zinc nitrate solution. SiO2 was deposited by PECVD at 50 °C. No current could be measured through the patterned metal dots on the SiO2 coated...

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Applied Physics Letters : Directing the transportation of a water ...

By: Qian Feng Xu, Jian Nong Wang, Ian H. Smith, and Kevin D. Sanderson

Description: Directional transportation of a ball-like water droplet on a superhydrophobic (SH) surface has been experimentally demonstrated. A SH surface with a water contact angle of as high as 160° and a sliding angle close to 0° is prepared by a sol-gel method based on removable polymeric nanospheres. A designed path line is then created on the prepared SH surface. The contact angle possesses anisotropy on the patterned SH surface. When the tilted angle of the patter...

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